My Drawing Number One /…/ looked like this. I showed my masterpiece to the grown-ups, and asked them whether the drawing frightened them. But they answered. “Frighten? Why should anyone be frightened by a hat?” My drawing was not a picture of a hat. It was a picture of a boa constrictor digesting an elephant.
Saint-Exupery (1943: 7–8)
1 Norms and Norm-Formulations as Entities
In Legal Theory it is quite common to distinguish between norms and norm-formulations. The distinction is based on the thesis that there is no one-to-one correspondence between the formulations contained in a legal text and the norms expressed by them: a norm can be expressed through various norm-formulations, and a norm-formulation can express different norms.
Assuming that one thing is the legal norm and another thing the formulation by which the norm is expressed leads to questions such as “What kind of entities (“things”) are norms?” If legal norms are not legal texts produced by legi...